Athenea <p><strong>Athenea</strong> es una <strong>Revista Científica </strong>orientada a las <strong>Ciencias de la Ingeniería</strong>. En ella se pretende publicar material académico científico de alto nivel investigativo y de calidad, producido por científicos e investigadores a nivel latinoamericano y mundial con el propósito de divulgar el quehacer de la labor docente e investigativa.</p> es-ES (Franyelit Suárez) (Ángel Lezama) mar, 15 jun 2021 11:02:08 -0500 OJS 60 Structural equation models - PLS in engineering sciences: a brief guide for researchers through a case applied to the industry <p>Modeling using structural equations, is a second generation statistical data analysis technique, it has been positioned as the methodological options most used by researchers in various fields of science. The best known method is the covariance-based approach, but it presents some limitations for its application in certain cases. Another alternative method is based on the variance structure, through the analysis of partial least squares, which is an appropriate option when the research involves the use of latent variables (for example, composite indicators) prepared by the researcher, and where it is necessary to explain and predict complex models. This article presents a brief summary of the structural equation modeling technique, with an example on the relationship of constructs, sustainability and competitiveness in iron mining, and is intended to be a brief guide for future researchers in the engineering sciences.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Competitiveness, Structural equations, Iron mining, Sustainability.</p> <p>References</p> <p>[1]J. Hair, G. Hult, C. Ringle and M. Sarstedt. A Primer on Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). California: United States. Sage, 2017.</p> <p>[2]H. Wold. Model Construction and Evaluation when Theoretical Knowledge Is Scarce: An Example of the Use of Partial Least Squares. Genève. Faculté des Sciences Économiques et Sociales, Université de Genève. 1979.</p> <p>[3]J. Henseler, G. Hubona &amp; P. Ray. “Using PLS path modeling new technology research: updated guidelines”. Industrial Management &amp; Data Systems, 116(1), 2-20. 2016.</p> <p>[4]G. Cepeda and Roldán J. “Aplicando en la Práctica la Técnica PLS en la Administración de Empresas”. Congreso de la ACEDE, Murcia, España, 2004.</p> <p>[5]D. Garson. Partial Least Squares. Regresión and Structural Equation Models. USA. Statistical Associates Publishing: 2016.</p> <p>[6]D. Barclay, C. Higgins &amp; R. Thompson. “The Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach to Causal Modeling: Personal Computer Adoption and Use as an Illustration”. Technology Studies. Special Issue on Research Methodology. (2:2), pp. 285-309. 1995.</p> <p>[7]J. Medina, N. Pedraza &amp; M. Guerrero. “Modelado de Ecuaciones Estructurales. Un Enfoque de Partial Least Square Aplicado en las Ciencias Sociales y Administrativas”. XIV Congreso Internacional de la Academia de Ciencias Administrativas A.C. (ACACIA). EGADE – ITESM. Monterrey, México, 2010.</p> <p>[8]J. Medina &amp; J. Chaparro. “The Impact of the Human Element in the Information Systems Quality for Decision Making and User Satisfaction”. Journal of Computer Information Systems. (48:2), pp. 44-52. 2008.</p> <p>[9]D. Leidner, S. Carlsson, J. Elam &amp; M. Corrales. “Mexican and Swedish Managers’ Perceptions of the Impact of EIS on Organizational Intelligence, Decisión Making, and Structure”. Decision Science. (30:3), pp. 633-658. 1999.<br>[10]W. Chin. “The partial least squares approach for structural equation modeling”. Chapter Ten, pp. 295-336 in Modern methods for business research. Edited by Macoulides, G. A., New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.</p> <p>[11]M. Höck &amp; C. Ringle M. “Strategic networks in the software industry: An empirical analysis of the value continuum”. IFSAM VIIIth World Congress, Berlin 2006.</p> <p>[12]J. Henseler, Ch. Ringle &amp; M. Sarstedt. Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, methods and applications in marketing and related fields. Berlin: Springer, 2012.</p> <p>[13]S. Daskalakis &amp; J. Mantas. “Evaluating the impact of a service-oriented framework for healthcare interoperability”. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. pp. 285-290. 2008.</p> <p>[14]C. Fornell &amp; D. Larcker: “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error”, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 18, pp. 39-50. Februay 1981.</p> <p>[15]C. Fornell. A Second Generation of Multivariate Analysis: An Overview. Vol. 1. New York, U.S.A. Praeger Publishers: 1982.</p> <p>[16]R. Falk and N. Miller. A Primer for Soft Modeling. Ohio: The University of Akron. 1992.</p> <p>[17]M. Martínez. Aplicación de la técnica PLS-SEM en la gestión del conocimiento: un enfoque técnico práctico.</p> <p>Revista Iberoamericana para Investigación y el Desarrollo Educativo. Vol. 8, Núm. 16. 2018.</p> <p>[18]S. Geisser. “A predictive approach to the random effects model”. Biometrika, Vol. 61(1), pp. 101-107. 1974.</p> <p>[19]J. Cohen. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1988.</p> <p>[20]GRI (2013). G4 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Global Reporting Initiative. Available:</p> Juan Enrique Villalva A. Derechos de autor 2021 Juan Enrique Villalva A. mar, 15 jun 2021 08:11:09 -0500 Adaptive control systems for solar collectors <p>En este trabajo se presentan las estrategias de control del flujo de aceite mediante la técnica de Control Predictivo basado en Modelo, para el mecanismo de control del campo de colectores solares cilindros parabólicos. Se analiza el comportamiento dinámico del sistema con el uso del modelo matemático, una técnica<br>de control self-tunning y controlador predictivo basado en modelo para el control de plantas tipo ACUREX.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Automation, Modernization, ControlLogix, Supervisory System, Mimic Panel.</p> <p>References</p> <p>[1]Arahal, M. R., Berenguel, M. &amp; Camacho, E. F., 1997. Nonlinear neural model-based predictive control of a solar plant. In Proc. European Control Conf. ECC'97. Brussels, Belgium, Volumen TH-E I2, p. paper 264.</p> <p>[2]Arahal, M. R., Berenguel, M. &amp; Camacho, E. F., 1998a. Comparison of RBF algorithms for output temperature prediction of a solar plant.. In Proc. CONTROLO'98, 9-11 September.</p> <p>[3]Arahal, M. R., Berenguel, M. &amp; Camacho, E. F., 1998b. Neural identification applied to predictive control of solar plant. Control Engineering Practice, Volumen 6, pp. pp. 333-344.</p> <p>[4]Aström, K. J. &amp; Wittenmark, B., 1989. Adaptative Control. Aström, K. J. &amp; Wittermark, B., 1984. Computed controlles Systems, Theory and Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.</p> <p>[5]Barão, M., 2000. Dynamic and no-linear control of a solar collector field. Thesis (in Portuguese). Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Técnico.</p> <p>[6]Barão, M., Lemos, J. M. &amp; Silva, R. N., 2002. Reduced complexity adaptative nonlinear control of a distribuited collector solar field. J. of Process Control, Volumen 12(1), pp. pp. 131-141.</p> <p>[7]Berenguel, M., Arahal, M. R. &amp; Camacho, E. F., 1998. Modeling free responses of a solar plant for predictive control. Control Engineering Practice, Volumen 6, pp. pp. 1257-1266.</p> <p>[8]Berenguel, M., Camacho, E. F. &amp; Rubio, F. R., 1994. Simulation software package for the Acurex field.. Departamento de Ingeniería y Automática.</p> <p>[9]Berenguel, M., Camacho, E. F. &amp; Rubio, F. R., 1997. Advanced Control of Solar Plants. Londres: Springer-Verlag.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Omar Flor Unda Derechos de autor 2021 Omar Flor Unda mar, 15 jun 2021 08:34:08 -0500 Impact of engineering on medicine: a literature review <p>This paper presents an analysis of the evolution of engineering and its current impact on health and medicine. The bibliographic documentation is analyzed and the most relevant aspects that highlight engineering and its contribution to new clinical developments are shown. The results show that medicine has an evolutionary need to adapt to new technological developments and that engineering plays a fundamental role in the advancement of medical, health, and scientific processes in general.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Engineering, technology, medical advances, health developments.</p> <p>References</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Adrian David Hauser Derechos de autor 2021 Adrian David Hauser mar, 15 jun 2021 08:55:21 -0500 Analysis of electromagnetic fields in transmission line configurations associated with the electrical system <p>This work presents an analysis of the electromagnetic fields generated by the different configurations of transmission lines associated with the Venezuelan electrical system, with voltages 230, 400 and 765 kilo Volts, and the transmission towers that will be built at the Manuel Piar Hydroelectric Plant. - Tocoma. The theoretical aspects and technical foundations for the evaluation of the magnetic field in transmission lines are analyzed. The work was carried out at the CORPOELEC company in Venezuela. The criteria and technical regulations were observed to verify respect for the levels allowed by national and international standards, to which a person may be exposed. The results show the location areas of the transmission lines and their corresponding electromagnetic analysis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Electromagnetic fields, transmission lines, transmission towers.</p> <p>References</p> <p>[1]EPRI AC Transmission Line Reference Book- 200 kV and Above, Third Edition. 2005.</p> <p>[2]"Interruptores de desconexión de aire de alto voltaje estándar nacional estadounidense Interruptores interruptores, interruptores de iniciación de fallas, interruptores de puesta a tierra, soportes de bus y accesorios Rangos de voltaje de control: programas de clasificaciones preferidas, pautas y especificaciones de construcción", en ANSI C37.32-1996 , vol., núm., págs. i-36, 1996, doi: 10.1109 / IEEESTD.1996.95627.</p> <p>[3]NEMA SG-6-1995, Nema sg 6 1995 tablas 32 1114 ilustración determina [Online], Available:</p> <p>[4]COVENIN 2238:2000. Radiaciones No Ionizantes. [Online], Available:<br>normas/2238-00.pdf.</p> <p>[5]Codigo Nacional de Seguridad en Instalaciones de Suministro de Energia Electrica y de Comuninaciones, CODELETECTRA, Codigo de Seguridad Electrica. Espacios libres mínimos para partes activas.</p> <p>[6]ESP OIL Engineering Consultants, WorkShop International, "Diseno de subestaciones eléctricas", dictado por M.Sc Manuel Briceno, 2006.</p> <p>[7]F.Gonzalez-Longatt, Líneas De Transmisión. [Online], Available:</p> <p>[8]R. López Valverde. Historia del electromagnetismo. Ediciones IES, Pablo Picasso, 2001.</p> <p>[9]P. Muné, M. Hernández-Wolpez, A. Cruz-García y RJ Jardim. (2015). “Sobre la penetración y atrapamiento del flujo magnético en superconductores Bi-2223”. Rev. Cubana de Física. Vol. 32, no. 1 pp 53.</p> <p>[10]C. Furió y J. Guisasola. (2001). “La enseñanza del concepto de campo eléctrico basada en un modelo de aprendizaje como investigación orientada”. Rev. Enseñanza De Las Ciencias, 19 (2), pp.319-334.</p> <p>[11]D. Vásquez Gonzales. (2017) “Aplicación del método cadena crítica para la mejora en construcción de cimentaciones de torres autosoportadas – caso línea de transmisión 66kV, en Sayán, Lima” Tesis de grado. Universidad César vallejo. Perú.</p> <p>[12]J. Maxwell (1864). “Una teoría dinámica del campo electromagnético”. Rev. Sociedad de la realeza. Vol 155.</p> <p>[13]D. Strebkov. (2014) “Perspectivas de uso de tecnologías de nicola tesla en ingeniería de energía actualizada”. Rev.Light &amp; Engineering. vol. 22 Edición 2, pp 4-14.</p> Adrian Beria, Juan Toledo Derechos de autor 2021 Adrian Beria, Juan Toledo mar, 15 jun 2021 09:25:48 -0500 Effect of the reaction of ammonia gas on the swelling of metallic iron and its oxides during nitriding processes <p>In order to study the relationship and effect of nitrogen gas in the reducing gases used in the reducibility tests of iron oxides, under isothermal conditions, a test scheme was executed using ammonia gas, such that its decomposition of the gas in the reactor produced a mixture of H2 and N2 gases. Furthermore, the addition of 6% NH3 in a 28% H2 and 68% N2 gas stream was planned to obtain a gas composition of 70% N2 and 30% H2. This would allow comparing the reducibility curves between both conditions, assuming that the possible difference between both conditions to compare the volume changes of the reduced samples. The difference to be studied will be based on the estimation and comparison of the rate of formation of metallic iron in the stages of reduction of Hematite / Magnetite / Wustite (FeO), as well as the effects of nitrogen absorbed by the fresh metallic iron produced, or present. in iron catalysts to produce ammonia, from the reducing gas mixture, on the volume change of the samples. Likewise, the catastrophic volume changes caused by nitrogen are compared by comparing sources of this gas in solid carbonaceous reducers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gaseous Reduction, Direct Reduced Iron, isothermal tests.</p> <p>References</p> <p>[1]O. Dam G. “The Influence of Nitrogen on the Swelling Mechanism of Iron Oxides During Reduction”. Univ. of London. PhD Thesis 1983.</p> <p>[2]J. Bogde. “Thermoelectric Power Measurements in Wustite. Univ. of Michigan”. 1976.</p> <p>[3]O. Dam G. y J. Jeffes. “Model for the Assessment of Chemical Composition of reduced iron ores from single measurements. Ironmaking and Steelmaking”. Vol. 14, N`5. 1987.</p> <p>[4]M. Yang. “Nitriding-Fundamentals, modelling and process optimization”. Tesis PhD. Worcester Polytech Institute. 2012.</p> <p>[5]EL Kasabgy. T and W-K. LU. “The Influence of Calcia and Magnesia in Wustite on the Kinetics of Metallization and Iron Whisker Formation”. Metallurgical 1980 American Society for Metals and the Metallurgical Society of AIME Volume 11b, pp. 410-414. 1980.</p> <p>[6]“Srikar Potnuru Studies nn the Physical Properties and Reduction Swelling Behavior of Fired Haematite Iton ore Pellets”. MSc Thesis. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering National Institute Of Technology, Rourkela May 2012.</p> <p>[7]R. Agarwal, S. Hembram. “To Study the Reduction and Swelling Behavior Iron Ore Pellets”. BSc. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering National Institute Of Technology, Rourkela May 2013.</p> <p>[8]C. Seaton., J. Foster. and J. Velasco. “Structural Changes Occurring during Reduction of Hematite and Magnetite Pellets Containing Coal Char”. Transactions ISIJ, Vol. 23, 1983, pp.</p> <p>[10]C. Bozco. “Interaction of Nitrogen with Iron Surfaces”. Journal of Catalysis 49. pp16-41. 1977.</p> <p>[11]L. Darken y R. Gurry. “Physical Chemistry of Metals”. Mc Graw hIll . 1953.</p> <p>[12]H. Weirdt and Z. Zwell, Trans. AIME. 229. 142. 1969.</p> <p>[13]J. Schulten. Trans. Soc. Faraday. 53, 1363, 1957.</p> <p>[14]E. Barret y C. Wood. Bureau of Mines R-I 3229. 1934</p> Oscar Dam G., Luis Azocar Derechos de autor 2021 Oscar Dam G., Luis Azocar mar, 15 jun 2021 09:55:59 -0500